Herzberg’s Theory, Two Factor Theory, Motivation-Hygiene theory

Frederick Herzberg is a well known psychologist that contributed their idea about motivation problem. Frederick Herzberg’s theory further be called two-factor theory, and also be known as the motivation-hygiene theory. Herzberg's Two Factor Theory is a "content theory" of motivation". In the 1960s, Frederick Herzberg and his associates conducted the study of human needs. The information collected relates to the attitude of people towards work. They analyzed the job attitudes of 200 accountants and engineers. They asked accountants and engineers to describe specific aspects of their jobs, they had felt positive or negative at work and that made them feel satisfied or dissatisfied.
Upon analyzing the results, Herzberg suggested a two-step approach to understanding employee motivation and satisfaction: They found that two entirely different sets of factors were associated with satisfying and dissatisfying work experiences, which they categories as hygiene factors and motivators.

Hygiene Factors

The Hygiene Factors are those factors that contribute to providing job satisfaction. They are not an intrinsic part of a job, but they are related to the conditions under which a job is performed. Presence of these factors does not motivate but prevents dissatisfaction. However, absence of these factor results in dissatisfaction, sohe called them "dissatisfiers' .The hygiene factors do not motivate to take more interest in the work but ) create a favorable environment for motivation and avoid unpleasantness . When employer is unable to provide enough of these factors, there will be job dissatisfaction among employees, such hygiene factors are as noted below.
Company's Policies and Administration, Supervision, Working Conditions, Interpersonal Relations with superiors and other subordinates, Salary, Job Security, Status, Personal Life, and Employee Benefits.
Motivating Factors
Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods; such methods are motivating factors for employees. Motivating Factors are related to work itself and act as forces of job satisfaction. They create positive and a longer lasting effect on employee’s performance and motivate employees in their work because they serve man's basic needs for psychological growth. Adequate provision of such factors called is 'Satisfiers'. Such factors are called motivators by Herzberg. The motivating factors are:

Achievement, recognition for accomplishment, job enlargement, job enrichment, increased responsibility, empowerment, opportunity for growth and development, creative and challenging Work and other personally rewarding factors.
Motivating factors motivate subordinates to take more interest in the work. They raise efficiency and productivity of employees. Employees will not have job satisfaction if the motivating factors are not provided in sufficient quality by the employer. Managers can help employees feel more motivated and, ultimately, more satisfied, by paying attention to motivators.
In brief, hygiene factors affect an individual's willingness to work while motivating factors affect his ability and efficiency to work.
Should managers concentrate on motivators or on hygiene factors? It depends. A skilled, well-paid, middle-class, middle-aged employee may be motivated to perform better if motivators are supplied. However, a young, unskilled worker who earns low wages, or an employee who is insecure, will probably still need the support of strong hygiene factors to reduce dissatisfaction before the motivators can be effective.
Comparison between Herzberg’s theory and Maslow’s Theory
Similarities between Herzberg’s theory and Maslow’s Theory
Both use a hierarchical scale, where one stage must first be fully or largely completed before advancing to the next stage.
Both are based on the argument that "we behave as we do because we are attempting to fulfill internal needs." (Bartol et al., 2005) i.e. needs theory.
They both specify the criteria as to what motivates people. However, this is controversial because entrepreneurs and people from different cultures have different values and norms, and therefore have different criteria or have criteria which are perceived as more important e.g. Greek and Japanese employees stated that safety and physiological needs are more important to them, where as employees from Norway and Sweden saw belongingness needs as being more important.
Comparison of Herzberg’s Theory and Maslow’s Theory
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Higher Order Needs

Lower Order Needs
Self actualization

Herzberg's hygiene idea corresponds with Maslow's Physiological, Safety and Belongingness needs i.e. they both have the same criteria (basic pay, work conditions etc.).
Also, Herzberg's motivators idea corresponds with Maslow's Esteem and Self-Actualization needs i.e. they both have the same criteria (recognition, growth, achievement etc.).
Both theories are influenced by environmental conditions, employee attitudes and as a result, their motivation. These influence an employee’s performance.
Distinction between Herzberg’s Theory and Maslow’s Theory
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Maslow’s Theory of Motivation
Herzberg’s theory of Motivation
Meaning: It is based on the concept of human needs and their satisfaction
It is based on the use of motivators which include achievement, recognition and opportunity for growth
Basis of Theory: It is based on the hierarchy of human needs. He identified five set of human needs
He refers to hygiene factors and motivating factors in his theory. Hygienefactors are dissatisfies while motivating factors motivates the subordinates
Nature of Theory: It is rather simple and descriptive. The theory is based long experience about human needs
It is more prescriptive and suggest the motivating factors which can be use effectively. This theory is based on actual information collected by interview.
Stages: Maslow says that each stage of the 5 must be fully or largely completed before advancing to the next stage
Herzberg suggested that there were only 2 stages (hygiene and motivators) instead of 5
Acceptability: It is most popular and widely cited theory of motivation and has wide applicability.
It is an extension of Maslow’s Theory of motivation. Its applicability is also narrow
Applicability: It is mostly applicable to poor and developing countries where money is still a motivating factor.
It is applicable to rich countries where money is less important motivating factor.
Descriptive/ Perspective: Its model is descriptive in nature
Herzberg theory (model) is perspective in nature.
Motivators: According to Maslow’s any need can act as motivator provided it is not satisfied or relatively less satisfied.
Maslow said that fulfilling each stage is a motivator

In this model hygiene factors (lower level needs) do not act as motivators. Only the higher order needs (achievement recognition, challenging work) act as motivators.
Fulfilling the hygiene stage only results in an employee being in neutral state and satisfaction and motivation only comes from the 2nd stage (motivator)